Bedouin of the Sinai بدو سيناء
Bedouin have lived in the area of the Sinai Peninsula
for hundreds of years. In all, there are 33 distinct Bedouin tribes living across the Sinai, with some of those
tribes being the Tarabin, Muzeina, Jebeleya, Awlad Said, Garasha, Sowalha, Hamada, and Alegat. The Bedouin Tribes of the Northern and Central
Sinai are primarily involved in Camel, Goat, and Sheep herding, while Bedouin of the southern Sinai do the same, and are also fishermen. Also some Bedouin
are gainfully employed in smuggling of various supplies into Southern Israel through tunnels hand dug under the border with Israel. Some Sinai Bedouin
also operate businesses catering to tourists, but these are only a very small minority of the Sinai Bedouin. Each tribe of the Bedouin in the Sinai
speak their own dialect of Arabic عربى, and that is how Bedouin identify which tribe other Bedouin are a member of.
Al-Tarabin Bedouin الترابين
The Tarabin Bedouin, also known as Al-Tirabin, is the largest Bedouin tribe in the Sinai, and they also occupy parts of the Negev Desert
in both Sinai and also Israel, and can be found throughout Egypt. This tribe currently numbers about 500,000 people. A township named Tirabin Al-Sana
was built in Israel in 2004, especially for Al-Sana clan from Al-Tirabin tribe. However, some of these Bedouin preferred to live in the desert instead of the town.
In some cases, the State of Israel commited human rights abuses against the Bedouin by bulldozing their makeshift, unofficial villages in the Negev Desert.
Al-Tirabin - Wikipedia الترابين
Feiran Oasis واحة الفيران
The Feiran Oasis, or Wadi Feiran, is a place steeped in biblical history as the site where Moses struck a rock to draw water for his thirsty people. Due to this signifance,
it has for hundreds of years served as a stopping point for Christian monks and pilgrims. Wadi Feiran is a green Oasis with large tracts of palm trees and is the largest
Oasis in the Sinai.
Dahab is the Arabic word for Gold, and earned this name from the golden sand on its beaches. Dahab is also home to the bedouin village Assalah.
This small bedouin village is prosperous from tourism and has campgrounds, shops, and hotels. The Blue Hole, a magnificent scuba diving site, is nearby.
Ras Mohamed National Park حديقة رأس محمد الوطنية
Ras Mohamed National Park lies at the very southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. It is surrounded by large and colorful coral reefs, and is also home to Gazelles in its northern desert area.
Remeilat Bedouin الرميلات
While most Bedouin are herders of Camel, Goats, and Sheep, there is one tribe in Northern Sinai that herds cattle - the Remeilat
The Bedouin Way الطريق البدوي
A select minority of Sinai Bedouin operate eco-tour businesses in southern Sinai, like The Bedouin Way
Sinai Peninsula - Wikipedia شبه جزيرة سيناء
Photo: Sinai Bedouin Man on a Camel (Bing Images)
Photo: A Bedouin Man of the Sinai Peninsula (Bing Images)
Photo: A Sinai Bedouin Family Outside Their Tent (Bing Images)
Photo: Sinai Bedouin Men Prepare a Meal (Bing Images)
Open Warfare In The Sinai الحرب في سيناء
Starting in about 2011, after the Egyptian Revolution, armed militants in the Sinai began attacking both military and also civilian targets in the Sinai in terrorist attacks,
with many of the armed extremist terrorist militants being from the Sinai Bedouin. However, it is important to note that most intelligence estimates put the number of
armed extremist combatants in the Sinai to be about 12,000, with about 1,000 to 2,000 of those aligned with the terrorist Daesh (ISIL), while the total
population of the Sinai is 600,000. So, it is still safe to say most of the Sinai Bedouin
are peaceful non-combatants. Unfortunately, many of the peaceful unarmed Bedouin have been caught up in the conflict and killed or wounded
after attacks by the Egyptian Armed Forces, and also others have been killed by their own fellow Bedouin in terrorist attacks by the extremists.
Longstanding grievances in the Sinai for the Bedouin have partly fueled the conflict. Sinai Bedouin are barred from employment in the Egyptian Armed Forces and Egyptian Police.
Little government investment is provided to the Bedouin in the likes of public works, utilities, and/or education. There is little or no schooling available for Bedouin youth.
Chronic unemployment is prevalent throughout the Bedouin communities of the Sinai.
Adding to the conflict, after revolution in Libya that toppled Muamar Qhaddafi, large stockpiles of Soviet Block weapons acquired by Libya flooded
the underground markets in North Africa, and around the world. With a long, unprotected border between Libya and Egypt, many extremist combatants then came into posession of large quantities of weapons, including
advanced surface to air missiles, and large quantities of explosives.
Also, extremist militants in Syria and Iraq began moving into the Sinai to join the battles.
There are at least 10 different armed extremist groups operating in the Sinai, with the three major ones being
Ansar Bait al-Maqdis أنصار بيت المقدس (Merged with ISIL in 2014), Al-Qaeda القاعدة, and Daesh داعش (ISIL).
Sinai Insurgency - Middle East Institute
Sinai Insurgency - Wikipedia
Sinai Insurgency Timeline - Wikipedia
The Egyptian Armed Forces announced two operations to combat the armed combatant extremists, starting in 2011 with Operation Eagle, and then in 2012
with Operation Sinai, which has continued until the present.
Operation Eagle - Wikipedia
Operation Sinai - Wikipedia
Around the time of Operation Eagle, 12 miltants in 4 groups launched brazen cross-border attacks within southern Israel, on Highway 12 near the Egyptian border. Egyptian sources
claimed that 3 of the attackers were from the Sinai. The miltants attacked a bus travelling on Highway 12, a bomb was detonated near an army patrol at the same time,
and in a third attack, an anti-tank missile hit a civilian vehicle.
2011 Southern Israel Cross Border Attacks - Wikipedia
On 5 August 2012, an attack on the Rafah barracks in Sinai startled the Egyptian public and stunned the Egyptian Armed Forces
From 2013 - 2014, Egyptian Armed Forces undertook clearing operations in northeast Sinai looking for extremist militants, but there is still a large contingent of
armed militants in Jabal Halal and also Jabal Amer.
On January 26, 2014, extremist militants shot down an Egyptian Army Mi-17 helicopter in North Sinai. All five of its crew members were killed.
The weapon used by the militants was most likely an infrared-tracking handheld surface to air missile, sourced from looted stockpiles
of Soviet Block weapons during the revolution in Libya.
In 2018, The New York Times claimed that Israel has conducted over 100 Air Strikes in Sinai. Bedouin in the attacked villages claimed that Hebrew lettering on the
remnants of the munitions proves that Israel is responsible. Also, during the Sinai insurgency, the Egyptian Armed forces sent tanks into the Sinai to do battle with ISIL.
These actions by both Egypt and Israel were violations of the 1979 Camp David Accords and Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel,
which calls for demilitarization of the Sinai and only a small UN peacekeeping force allowed in the Sinai. However, neither nation made much complaint about the violations.
On October 31, 2015, a Russian passenger jet, Metrojet Flight 9268, was destroyed above the northern Sinai. 224 people aboard were killed.
ISIL claimed responsibility for the terrorist attack. Investigators concluded that the jet was brought down by a bomb.
Russian Jet Metrojet 9268 Sinai Terrorist Attack - Wikipedia
The conflict in the Sinai continues right up until the current day, and also the Egyptian Armed Forces Operation Sinai is still continuing.
Photo: ISIL militants in the Sinai (Bing Images)
Photo: A Sinai ISIL Militant Stands Next to Arms That ISIL posesses, Large Stockpiles of Soviet Block Weapons Flooded the African Markets After Revolution in Libya (Bing Images)
Photo: ISIL Militants On The March in Sinai (Bing Images)
Photo: Egyptian President Abdel Fatah el Sisi, and Leaders of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Give a Press Conference On The State of the Conflict in Sinai (Bing Images)
Photo: Egyptian Soldiers Prepare for Combat in the Sinai (Bing Images)
Photo: Egyptian Soldiers Prepare for Combat in the Sinai (Google Images)
Photo: A Building in Sinai Damaged by an ISIL Terrorist Attack (Bing Images)